# Tag: turbulence

## Convection in multiphase fluid flows using lattice Boltzmann methods

Biferale, L., Perlekar, P., Sbragaglia, M. & Toschi, F. (2012). Convection in multiphase fluid flows using lattice Boltzmann methods. Physical Review Letters, 108(10):104502

We present high-resolution numerical simulations of convection in multiphase flows (boiling) using a novel algorithm based on a lattice Boltzmann method. We first study the thermodynamical and kinematic properties of the algorithm. Then, we perform a series of 3D numerical simulations changing the mean properties in the phase diagram and compare convection with and without phase coexistence at Rayleigh number . We show that in the presence of nucleating bubbles non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects develop, the mean temperature profile becomes asymmetric, and heat-transfer and heat-transfer fluctuations are enhanced, at all Ra studied. We also show that small-scale properties of velocity and temperature fields are strongly affected by the presence of the buoyant bubble leading to high non-Gaussian profiles in the bulk.

## Inverse energy cascade in three-dimensional isotropic turbulence

Biferale, L., Musacchio, S. & Toschi, F. (2012). Inverse energy cascade in three-dimensional isotropic turbulence. Physical Review Letters, 108(16):164501

We study the statistical properties of homogeneous and isotropic three-dimensional () turbulent flows. By introducing a novel way to make numerical investigations of Navier-Stokes equations, we show that all 3D flows in nature possess a subset of nonlinear evolution leading to a reverse energy transfer: from small to large scales. Up to now, such an inverse cascade was only observed in flows under strong rotation and in quasi-two-dimensional geometries under strong confinement. We show here that energy flux is always reversed when mirror symmetry is broken, leading to a distribution of helicity in the system with a well-defined sign at all wave numbers. Our findings broaden the range of flows where the inverse energy cascade may be detected and rationalize the role played by helicity in the energy transfer process, showing that both and properties naturally coexist in all flows in nature. The unconventional numerical methodology here proposed, based on a Galerkin decimation of helical Fourier modes, paves the road for future studies on the influence of helicity on small-scale intermittency and the nature of the nonlinear interaction in magnetohydrodynamics.

## Non-Spherical Particles and Aggregates in Fluid Flows

**June 17, 2013 — June 21, 2013**

Coordinators:

**Cristian Marchioli** (Università di Udine, Italy)

**Federico Toschi** (Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands)

Dynamics of non-spherical particles and aggregates in fluid flow are encountered both in nature and in industrial applications. Examples for non-spherical particles include airborne solid particles or aerosols, carbon nanotubes, micro-organisms like phytoplankton, sediment-laden flows and wood-fibre suspensions. Particle aggregates are found in chemical, industrial or material processes for colloids and in polymer manufacturing. In these processes, particle size ranges from several nanometers to several centimeters, with loadings that may substantially change the macroscopic (rheological) properties of the suspension flow. On the other hand, transport and interaction of particles/aggregates in complex (e.g. turbulent) flows is governed by a number of physical processes occurring at a wide range of different scales. The rapidly increasing computational power has recently made feasible three-dimensional, time-dependent simulations of non-ideal particles in fluid flows, producing an entire branch of flourishing literature which is fostering research in dispersed multiphase flow. Progress has been substantial also from an experimental viewpoint, with improved measurement techniques based on optics or magnetic resonance flow imaging. Due to the multiscale nature of the problem, investigation and modelling require synergetic use of such approaches.

Objective of the course is to provide a general and unified frame of the current research on the dynamical behaviour of non-spherical particles and particle aggregates in complex flows and put future research paths in perspective. The focus will be on generic aspects and physics of non-ideal particle suspensions (e.g. rheological properties in suspensions of anisotropic deformable particles, and modulation of turbulence induced by particles/aggregates). Issues related to modelling and physical understanding at all various length scales will be covered: from the scale resolving the complex flow around individual non-spherical particles, to large eddy simulation models for flows with particles, to large-scale Eulerian-Eulerian models. Among the topics to be included are particle dynamics in free and wall-bounded turbulence, fluid-particle interactions, collision modelling, break-up and agglomeration, advances in measurement and simulation techniques, and rheological modelling.

The lectures will also provide a wide overview of cutting-edge work in this very active area of multiphase flow research and focus in more detail on a few advanced topics of significant practical and theoretical value in several areas of engineering and applied physics. This will reinforce understanding of the fundamental phenomena and their importance, providing participants with varied conceptual and methodological tools applicable to problems at hand. After the lectures, students should possess the necessary knowledge of the basic capabilities, potentials and limitations of the various numerical and experimental methods taught and, hence, should be able to critically evaluate the reliability and accuracy of the information these methods can provide when applied to practical situations.